The World Before Control: American Immigration. Law and Policy During Colonial Times
rok , vol. ; str. 7-15
In debates on American immigration law, it is possible to encounter the argument that there were no laws restricting newcomers’ flow into America till the end of the 19th century. An inaccurate understanding of American immigration policy sometimes leads to the opinion that prior to the beginning of the federal immigration power, there was no immigration policy at all in America. This article describes regulations enacted by the colonies and the states, as well as activities taken by them, to control the influx of newcomers. They tried to encourage immigrants to come to America while simultaneously controlling who was coming. The idea of successful control over immigrants coming to the North American continent was rooted in restrictive laws determining who was admissible. Paupers, criminals and those with contagious diseases were undesirable. Colonial and state authorities tried to stop their influx or, at least, to lessen the danger they posed. The main goal of the presented article is to analyze and present arguments proving or neglecting the assumption that there was a lack of an immigration policy during colonial times in America.
Bailey, Rayna. Immigration and Migration. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009.
Baseler, Marilyn C. “Asylum for Mankind”: America, 1607‑1800. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998.
Bernard, William S. “Immigration: History of U.S. Policy.” The Immigration Reader. America in a Multidisciplinary Perspective. Ed. David Jacobson. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1998.
Bodvarsson, Örn B., and Hendrik Van den Berg. The Economics of Immigration: Theory and Policy. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
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Delbanco, Andrew, and Alan Heimert. The Puritans in America: a Narrative Anthology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.
DeSipio, Louis, and Rodolfo O. de la Garza. U.S. Immigrant and Immigration Policies in the Twenty‑First Century: Making Americans, Remaking America. Boulder: Westview Press, 2015.
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Kanstroom, Dan. Deportation Nation: Outsiders in American History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007.
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Lane, Brittney M. Testing the Borders: The Boundaries of State and Local Power to Regulate Illegal Immigration. 39 Pepp. L. Rev. 2, 2013. Web. 24 February 2015. http://digitalcommons.pepper dine.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1364&context=plr.
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Lee, Erika. “A Nation Of Immigrants and a Gatekeeping Nation: American Immigration Law and Policy.” A Companion to American Immigration. Ed. Reed Ueda. Malden, Mass.: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
Lee, Erika, and Judy Yung. Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
LeMay, Michael C. Transforming America: Perspectives on U.S. Immigration. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC‑CLIO, 2013.
Marrin, Richard B. Runaways of Colonial New Jersey: Indentured Servants, Slaves, Deserters, and Prisoners, 1720‑1781. Westminster: Heritage Books, 2007.
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Pestana, Carla Gardina. Quakers and Baptists In Colonial Massachusetts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Pfeffer, Jeremy I. From One End of the Earth to the Other: The London Bet Din, 1805‑1855, and the Jewish Convicts Transported to Australia. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2009.
Ueda, Reed. A Companion to American Immigration. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. The World Before Control: American Immigration 15
Walton, Gary M., and Hugh Rockoff. History of the American Economy. Mason, South‑Western: Cengage Learning, 2012.
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Of Promises Delivered and Failed: Post‑9/ 11 America through the Eyes of The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid
rok , vol. ; str. 17-28
Mohsin Hamid’s novel The Reluctant Fundamentalist offers an interesting voice in the discussion about post‑9/11 America and shows how a successful immigrant story changes to a racially charged case of ethnic discrimination. Despite the fact that Hamid’s protagonist may believe in his successful assimilation into American culture, the general feeling of xenophobia that gripped American society in the wake of the 9/11 attacks forces him to re‑evaluate his position. His personal dilemma, oscillating between the desire for material affluence and ethnic loyalty, is presented in a broader context that depicts the world divided along financial and political lines. The conflicting pull between the economic interests lying in the West – represented by the U.S. and the subaltern position of less‑developed countries, such as Pakistan – becomes a source of anguish for the protagonist. This paper examines how the borders of conflict shift from public to personal, complicating the issue of identity for Muslim immigrants. The discourse of the war on terror is presented from the perspective of an Other, offering a counter‑narrative to the hegemonic narrative of Western culture.
Bjerre, Aervold Thomas. “Post‑9/11 Literary Masculinities in Kalfus, DeLillo, and Hamid.” Orbis Litterarum 67: 2012 (3): 241‑266.
Darda, Joseph. “Precarious World: Rethinking Global Fiction in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist.” Mosaic 47: 2014 (3): 107‑122.
Faludi, Susan. The Terror Dream: Fear and Fantasy in Post‑9/11 America. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007.
Hamid, Mohsin. The Reluctant Fundamentalist. New York: Harcourt, 2007.
Mamdani, Mahmood. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War and the Roots of Terror. New York: Three Leaves, 2004.
Morey, Peter. “‘The Rules of the Game Have Changed’: Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist and Post‑9/11 Fiction.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing 47: 2011 (2): 135‑146.
Singh, Harleen. “Insurgent Metaphors: Decentering 9/11 in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist and Kamila Shamsie’s Burnt Shadows.” Ariel: A Review of International English Literature 43: 2012 (1): 23‑44.
Yaqin, Amina. “Mohsin Hamid in Conversation.” Wasafiri 23: 2008 (2): 44‑49.
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Paleoconservatism and the Issue of Immigration and Multiculturalism
rok , vol. ; str. 29-40
This article deals with paleoconservative attitudes toward the issue of immigration to the United States and the problem of multiculturalism and assimilation on American soil. Representatives of paleoconservatism present these phenomena as a significant threat to the American way of life. Their words are filled with anxiety for the future of American society, which is instilled with the positive meaning of the idea of open borders, and which is becoming permeated with alien cultures and losing its own cultural identity. Starting with an explanation of the essence of the American nation’s homogeneity, this article presents the threats which come with the ‘mixing’ of cultures and liberal immigration as well as phenomena directly linked to such immigration, namely the problem of terrorism and Islam.
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Gottfried, Paul. “Reconfiguring the Political Landscape.” The Paleoconservatives: New Voices of the Old Right. Ed. Joseph Scotchie. ed. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1999.
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Lutton, Wayne, Tanton, John. The Immigration Invasion. Petoskey, MI: Social Contract Press, 1994.
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U.S.‑Swiss Relations in the Context of Swiss Banking Secrecy
rok , vol. ; str. 41-58
Until World War I, bilateral relations between the United States and Switzerland could be described as rather friendly. Often referred to as ‘sister republics,’ the two countries shared common democratic values and a sense of uniqueness with respect to their republican governments in a world dominated by autocracy. The first serious rupture between the two countries occurred during and in the immediate aftermath of World War II. The major cause of this rupture was the refusal of Switzerland to participate in the Safehaven program, designed to track down and block German assets in neutral countries and later to use them for post‑war reparations. The repercussions of the involvement of Switzerland in the transfer of Nazi gold as well as the safekeeping of German assets had profound consequences for U.S.‑Swiss relations in the 1990s, fueling a conflict over the dormant accounts of holocaust victims. All major disagreements between the United States and Switzerland are connected to the concept of Swiss banking secrecy, which is defined in a most rigorous way compared to international legal standards. The implementation of Swiss banking secrecy as defined in Swiss Banking Law facilitates tax misconduct by foreign nationals. Since 2007, the bilateral relations between Switzerland and the U.S. have been determined by ongoing IRS investigations into the involvement of Swiss banks in aiding U.S. citizens in tax evasion and tax fraud, which is facilitated by the enforcement of stringent bank secrecy laws within the Swiss banking system. The U.S. legal actions against Swiss banks proved that the American government is determined to enforce its laws in Switzerland despite it being a sovereign foreign country. The conflicts with the U.S. over banking secrecy, which, among other findings, unveiled the conduct of the Swiss during World War II, have shed light on the true nature of this phenomenon. Switzerland is struggling to defend the values so fundamental to its banking culture, but at the same time it is forced to succumb to international and especially U.S. pressure and implement various internal and international regulations, which impose a constraint on the practice of banking secrecy.
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General Westmoreland: An Unfulfilled Hero Who Was Turned into a Scapegoat
rok , vol. ; str. 59-68
This article is dedicated to the most prominent American commander of the Vietnam War, or to be more precise, to the treatment of General William C. Westmoreland in modern American historiography. Ridiculed and accused of lying to the American public during his lifetime, General Westmoreland still remains one of the ‘villains’ of the Vietnam War. In recent years it has changed slightly, and now on the publishing market we can find books both attacking and defending the MACV commander and his decisions. However, mainstream historiography continues to judge him through the prism of the American trauma caused by the Vietnam War, and not his real merit and achievements. This article aims to dispel at least a few myths persisting both about General Westmoreland and his strategy to win ‘an unwinnable conflict.’
Documents and sources:
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[ Do góry ]
The Law and Practice of Government Shutdowns in the United States
rok , vol. ; str. 69-97
This article analyzes the legal rules governing operations of the federal government of the United States during lapses of appropriations (commonly known as government shutdowns). After briefly explaining what government shutdowns are and when they happen, it presents the main sources of the applicable law, starting with its statutory basis – the Antideficiency Act. After analyzing the history, purpose, and text of that statute, the article presents two official opinions of the Attorney General which interpreted the Act to require suspension of non‑essential government operations during funding gaps. The article then proceeds to delineate statutory and implied exceptions to that requirement. Its second part consists of an analysis of actual administration practice during shutdowns. On the basis of agency contingency plans posted during the 2013 shutdown, it identifies the government activities that continued despite the shutdown, and briefly describes each activity’s scale and the legal basis for it being exempt from the generally applicable rules. It concludes that while there have been disputes about the administration’s handling of the shutdown, the agency’s practice was generally consistent with the legal rules, though the statutory framework itself would benefit from congressional revision and clarification.
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An Act making Appropriations for the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Expenses of the Government for the Year ending June 30, 1871. Jul. 12, 1870. 41st Cong., 2nd Sess., c. 251. 16 Stat. 230 (1870).
An Act making Appropriations to supply Deficiencies in the Appropriations for the Execution of Reconstruction Acts, &c.. Feb. 12, 1868. 40th Cong., 2nd Sess., c. 8. 15 Stat. 35 (1868).
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An Act making Appropriations to supply Urgent Deficiencies in the Appropriations for the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1906, and for prior Years, and for other Purposes. Feb. 27, 1906. 59th Cong., 1st Sess., c. 510. 34 Stat. 27 (1906).
An Act to increase the Pay of the Privates in the Regular Army and in the Volunteers in the Service of the United States, and for other Purposes. Aug. 6, 1861. 37th Cong., 1st Sess., c. 63, § 3. 12 Stat. 326 (1861).
Annual and Sick Leave Act of 1951. Pub. L. No. 82‑233, Title II. 65 Stat. 679 (1951).
Budget Control Act of 2011. Pub. L. No. 112‑25. 125 Stat. 240 (2011).
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Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974. Pub. L. No. 93‑344. 88 Stat. 297 (1974).
Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005. Pub. L. No. 108‑447. 118 Stat. 2809 (2005).
Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014. Pub. L. No. 113‑46. 127 Stat. 558 (2013).
Federal Shutdown Response Emergency Act of 2013. D.C. Act No. 20‑182 (2013).
First Continuing Resolution for FY 1996. Pub. L. No. 104‑31.109 Stat. 278 (1995).
Fourth Continuing Resolution for FY 1996. Pub. L. No. 104‑94. 110 Stat. 25 (1996).
Further Continuing Resolution for FY 1996. Pub. L. No. 104‑56. 109 Stat. 548 (1995).
General Appropriation Act, 1951. Sept. 6, 1950. 81st Cong., 2nd Sess., c. 896. 64 Stat. 595 (1950).
Gramm‑Rudman‑Hollings Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985. Pub. L. No. 99‑177, Title II. 99 Stat. 1038 (1985).
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. Pub. L. No. 101‑508.
104 Stat. 1388 (1990).
Pay Our Military Act. Pub. L. No. 113‑39.
127 Stat. 532 (2013).
Armster v. United States District Court, 792 F.2d 1423 (9th Cir. 1986)
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Flemming v. Nestor, 363 U.S. 603, 80 S.Ct. 1367, 4 L.Ed.2d 1435 (1960)
Glavey v. United States, 182 U.S. 595, 21 S.Ct. 891, 45 L.Ed. 1247 (1901)
Glavey v. United States, 35 Ct. Cl. 242 (1900), rev’d on other grounds, 182 U.S. 595 (1901)
Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha, 462 U.S. 919, 103 S.Ct. 2764, 77 L.Ed.2d 317 (1983)
MacMath v. United States, 248 U.S. 151, 39 S.Ct. 31, 63 L.Ed. 177 (1918)
Plaut v. Spendthrift Farm, Inc, 514 U.S. 211, 115 S.Ct. 1447, 131 L.Ed.2d 328 (1995)
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Saltzman v. United States, 161 Ct. Cl. 634 (1963)
Schick v. Reed, 419 U.S. 256, 95 S.Ct. 379, 42 L.Ed.2d 430 (1974)
United Automobile Workers v. Donovan, 746 F.2d 855 (D.C. Cir. 1984)
United States v. Grant, 237 F.2d 511 (7th Cir. 1956)
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579, 72 S. Ct. 863, 96 L. Ed. 1153 (1952)
Bureau of Land Management – Reimbursement of Contract Disputes Act Payments, 63 Comp. Gen. 308, B‑211229 (GAO 1984)
Currency Exchange Rate Fluctuations, 58 Comp. Gen. 46, B‑133316 (GAO 1978)
Department of Education: Recording of Obligations under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, 65 Comp. Gen. 4, B‑219161 (GAO 1983)
In re LTV Aerospace Corporation, 55 Comp. Gen. 307, B‑183851 (GAO 1975)
In re Newport News Shipbuilding Co., 55 Comp. Gen. 812, B‑184830 (GAO 1976)
Settlement and Certification of Judgment Claims, 1 Comp. Gen. 540 (GAO 1922)
Tax on Property of the Government, 9 Comp. Dec. 181 (Comp. Treas. 1902)
Voluntary Services – Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue, 27 Comp. Dec. 131 (Comp. Treas. 1920)
Voluntary Services, 9 Comp. Dec. 182 (Comp. Treas. 1902)
Bills and Resolutions
Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014, H.R. 2775, 113th Cong., 1st (2013)
Continuing Resolution for FY 1996, H.J. Res. 115, 104th Cong., 1st (1995)
Continuing Resolution for FY 2014, H.J. Res. 59, 113th Cong., 1st (2013)
Federal Employee Retroactive Pay Fairness Act, H.R. 3223, 113th Cong., 1st (2013)
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